Romans 11:11-32 outlines the climax of Paul’s dialogue regarding the inclusion of Jews & Gentiles into the kingdom of God. As hotly contested verses go, these are up there. Doug Moo notes most scholars ‘agree that the key verse is 11:26: “All Israel will be saved.” But the identity of “Israel” and the manner and time of its salvation are contested’ (Moo, Encountering the Book of Romans, 2002).
Whilst there are a broad range of potential solutions, there are only three credible possibilities:
- “All Israel” refers to a significant number of Jews who will turn to Christ and be saved at the parousia (so Tom Schreiner, Bob Mounce, Doug Moo, et al)
- “All Israel” refers to the entirety of the church. So, the elect Jewish remnant and the fullness of the Gentiles will “come in” ushering in the eschaton (so most Reformers, Stuart Olyott, Tom Wright, et al)
- “All Israel” refers to ethnic Israel but, rather than a significant number at the end of time, only those elect Jews throughout the course of history (so C.M. Horne)